The functions of political parties in today’s society are a big debate these days. Different think tanks have their diverse opinions about this matter. Some political scientists believe that the evolutionary process of politics in society is refining the political institutions. And a political party is one of those political settings.
In fact, a political party is an organization that facilitates and coordinates the candidates who want to go for election in the country. The members of a political party share a similar idealogy. So, the foundation of ant political party is based upon some common idealogy. All members of the party keep committed to the fulfillment of their idealogy and policy.
Types of Political Parties
There are a variety of different types of political parties. All these parties tow their own policy guidelines. Members of the party draw their own principles and under the light of those principles or recommendations, they formulate their manifesto. This manifesto becomes their political slogan during the time of the general election.
Here we try to describe some of those briefly.
A political party is formed when a government is without a formal leader. This party cannot hold a seat in parliament, but it is free to nominate a candidate for the office of President if the country has a multi-party system.
A parliamentary party is a political party that uses parliamentary institutions and the formal rules of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom.
Key Functions of Political Parties
Following are key functions that political parties perform for the good of the populace.
Creating a Positive Environment
A party is the most effective tool for the betterment of society when it’s structured so that it encourages the good traits that make citizens flourish. These may be:
Improving a country’s overall education level and encouraging children to pursue the liberal arts and science. Almost all political party keeps some priority in their manifesto. The basic agenda of every party is to serve the community in a better way. They try to collect data and on the basis of those assessments, they establish their opinion. Later, this opinion becomes part of their party manifesto.
Another function of a good political party may be to Promote business innovation and development, especially among young people. Due to the advent of innovation, a lot of opportunities are there. Party leaders try to assess the needs of the market in terms of demand and supply. Job creation remains one of their main objectives.
The environment is an emerging challenge of the world of today. Political parties are focussing a lot on the environment and fostering an appreciation for the environment and encouraging the protection of endangered species.
The last but not least, the protection of human rights is the major agenda of the majority of political parties. on this slogan, they sensitize the masses to bag their votes to come into power corridors.
Challenges for Political Parties in Today’s Society
The countries of the world are highly interconnected and interdependent. Therefore a shift in political power from one country to another can have negative consequences on the global economy. International financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank can influence policy decisions made by national governments.
The first decade of the twenty-first century was marked by the financial crisis of 2008, which exposed gaps in national and international economic regulations. One of the key causes of the crisis was the mismatched economic growth between developed and developing countries.
Another major challenge for political parties is electoral fraud. Free and fair elections are the basic characteristics of any democracy. In democratic societies, Political institutions ensure the parties for a transparent electoral process. On the other hand, In modern times there are a lot of states enjoying vibrant democracies. In these societies, democratic institutions are well functional and deliver to the people.
But unfortunately, there is a lot of democratic mess in certain countries. on the other hand, we can say that there is democracy in those countries, but not fully vibrant to deliver its benefits to the masses. There is a generalization that the structure of political parties has a close connection with other political institutions. If these institutions are strong and vibrant, the core structure of the political parties will be more vital.
In some countries, there is a dictatorship but in disguise of democracy. So, it is quite tricky to differentiate the real sense of democracy and the process of democratization.
The future of political parties
It is a bit challenging to predict the future of the political parties. But one thing is quite clear that emerging trends in the developed democracies are not satisfactory. There is a big rift between right-wing politics and left-wing politics. As politics become more fragmented, the role of political parties seems to be less relevant. A political party may remain in existence for the purposes of electioneering; it can mobilize existing supporters and opposition groups. It may even survive as a fissiparous group for years on end.
As political parties disperse, they can no longer perform the function they did in the past. Opposition parties might come together for pragmatic purposes but rarely form an ongoing, trans-partisan, cross-party collective.
The relationship between political parties and democracy seems to be fraying. Although they continue to be one of the few national institutions that can mobilize opposition parties, they will continue to do so in a fragmented, multi-party environment.
Political parties are integral to the democratic process in modern democracies. We are well aware that in our political system these parties play a pivotal role. This helps us to understand their relationship with democracy and politics. This review will hopefully be used by political parties to strengthen their governance structures and the efficiency of their operations. In doing so, it is hoped that they will be able to maximize the benefits that parties have to offer as a vehicle for change.
1- Political parties are usually divided into political parties and other groups. Other groups include associations, interest groups, and foundations.